This tutorial assumes you have a Python project with a reStructuredText (rst) news file (also known as changelog) file that you wish to use
towncrier on, to generate its news file.
It will cover setting up your project with a basic configuration, which you can then feel free to customize.
Install from PyPI:
python3 -m pip install towncrier
towncrier keeps its config in the PEP-518
pyproject.toml or a
If the latter exists, it takes precedence.
The most basic configuration is just telling
towncrier where to look for news fragments:
[tool.towncrier] directory = "changes"
Which will look into “./changes” for news fragments and write them into “./NEWS.rst”.
If you’re working on a Python project, you can also specify a package:
[tool.towncrier] # The name of your Python package package = "myproject" # The path to your Python package. # If your package lives in 'src/myproject/', it must be 'src', # but if you don't keep your code in a 'src' dir, remove the # config option package_dir = "src" # Where you want your news files to come out. This can be .rst # or .md, towncrier's default template works with both. filename = "NEWS.rst"
towncrier will look for news fragments inside your Python package, in a directory named
With this example project, it will look in
src/myproject/newsfragments/ for them.
Create this folder:
$ mkdir src/myproject/newsfragments/ # This makes sure that Git will never delete the empty folder $ echo '!.gitignore' > src/myproject/newsfragments/.gitignore
.gitignore will remain and keep Git from not tracking the directory.
Detecting Dates & Versions#
towncrier needs to know what version your project is, and there are two ways you can give it:
For Python 2/3-compatible projects, a
__version__in the top level package. This can be either a string literal, a tuple, or an Incremental version.
--version=<myversionhere>when interacting with
As an example, if your package doesn’t have a
__version__, you can manually specify it when calling
towncrier on the command line with the
$ towncrier build --version=1.2.3post4
towncrier will also include the current date (in
YYYY-MM-DD format) when generating news files.
You can change this with the
$ towncrier build --date=2018-01-01
Creating News Fragments#
towncrier news fragments are categorised according to their ‘type’.
There are five default types, but you can configure them freely (see Configuration for details).
The five default types are:
feature: Signifying a new feature.
bugfix: Signifying a bug fix.
doc: Signifying a documentation improvement.
removal: Signifying a deprecation or removal of public API.
misc: A ticket has been closed, but it is not of interest to users.
When you create a news fragment, the filename consists of the ticket ID (or some other unique identifier) as well as the ‘type’.
towncrier does not care about the fragment’s suffix.
You can create those fragments either by hand, or using the
towncrier create command.
Let’s create some example news fragments to demonstrate:
$ echo 'Fixed a thing!' > src/myproject/newsfragments/1234.bugfix $ towncrier create --content 'Can also be ``rst`` as well!' 3456.doc.rst # You can associate multiple ticket numbers with a news fragment by giving them the same contents. $ towncrier create --content 'Can also be ``rst`` as well!' 7890.doc.rst $ echo 'The final part is ignored, so set it to whatever you want.' > src/myproject/newsfragments/8765.removal.txt $ echo 'misc is special, and does not put the contents of the file in the newsfile.' > src/myproject/newsfragments/1.misc $ towncrier create --edit 2.misc.rst # starts an editor $ towncrier create -c "Orphan fragments have no ticket ID." +random.bugfix.rst
For orphan news fragments (those that don’t need to be linked to any ticket ID or other identifier), start the file name with
The content will still be included in the release notes, at the end of the category corresponding to the file extension:
$ echo 'Fixed an unreported thing!' > src/myproject/newsfragments/+anything.bugfix
We can then see our news fragments compiled by running
towncrier in draft mode:
$ towncrier build --draft --name myproject --version 1.0.2 --date 2015-12-27
You should get an output similar to this:
Loading template... Finding news fragments... Rendering news fragments... Draft only -- nothing has been written. What is seen below is what would be written. myproject 1.0.2 (2015-12-27) ============================ Bugfixes -------- - Fixed a thing! (#1234) - Orphan fragments have no ticket ID. Improved Documentation ---------------------- - Can also be ``rst``` as well! (#3456, #7890) Deprecations and Removals ------------------------- - The final part is ignored, so set it to whatever you want. (#8765) Misc ---- - #1, #2
Producing News Files In Production#
To produce the news file for real, run:
This command will remove the news files (with
git rm) and append the built news to the filename specified in
pyproject.toml, and then stage the news file changes (with
It leaves committing the changes up to the user.
If you wish to have content at the top of the news file (for example, to say where you can find the tickets), put your text above a rST comment that says:
.. towncrier release notes start
towncrier will then put the version notes after this comment, and leave your existing content that was above it where it is.